Do you know what the origin of “revolution” is? According to political scientists, revolution is defined as an unforeseen shift in governmental structure. Stemming from societal feelings of persecution, revolutions typically happen during periods of political revolt. Find out more about the tumultuous history of armed revolution.
Seeds of rebellion
Even though the word “revolucion” comes from the 13th-century French, the term “revolution” arises from the 14th-century English. At first, the word “revolution” was used with respect to the movement of heavenly bodies. However, the term has been used to describe a riotous upheaval since 1450. In 1688, scholars utilized the term to represent their forced substitution of James II and William III in an event dubbed the “Glorious Revolution“.
Historically speaking, there are several different forms of revolution. German philosopher Karl Marx proposed his theory about multiple revolutionary forms, which included pre-capitalist, early bourgeois, bourgeois, bourgeois-democratic, early proletariat, socialist, and coup d’état revolutions. According to the American humorist Mark Katz, rebellions are commonly launched to either disrupt an existing establishment or to establish a totalitarian government.
Additionally, there is a variety of revolutionary subdivisions. These include social, proletarian, and communist revolutions. Historians also draw a distinction between revolts that were unsuccessful or self-destructive. The Industrial and Commercial Revolutions are examples of social revolutions. However, armed insurgencies are typically the most common type of revolution.
Fight the power
The earliest recorded rebellion occurred during the Second Dynasty of Egypt in 2730 BCE. This conflict was resolved by the pharaoh Khasekhemwy, who reunited Upper and Lower Egypt. Other notable revolutions include the Babylonian rebellion against the Assyrian Empire in 615 BCE. In 509 BCE, the Roman government experienced a coup when the countess Lucretia was physically assaulted. She subsequently committed suicide, resulting in the removal of the monarchs of Rome and the foundation of the Roman Republic.
Even Julius Caesar had to face the major turbulence of revolution. From 52 to 51 BCE, Caeser spent his time putting an end to the Celtic Gauls revolt. Between 49 BCE and 45 BCE, the Roman emperor led an expedition across the Rubicon river. This mission was part of Caeser’s plan to storm the Roman government with the aid of the Italian army. Astonishingly, Caesar was able to dethrone the Pompeian government and declare himself as the new “dictator in perpetuity“.
Of course, the American Revolution is probably the most well-known rebellion that ever occurred. Starting in 1765, the bloody struggle for the United States’ independence against Britain lasted for 18 years. During the lengthy conflict, at least 17,000 Americans died of disease and up to 12,000 men died inside of prisoner of war camps. As for the British troops, about 24,000 servicemen lost their lives in the conflict. The American Revolutionary War lasted from 1775 to 1783, and the young nation was irrevocably changed by its fight for freedom. As a result of the colonial uproar, the American Constitution and the Declaration of Independence were established.
Get up stand up
In 1789, the French Revolution was the catalyst for many socioeconomic changes. For the following decade, the history of France and Europe was transformed forever. Though it’s difficult for scholars to pinpoint the roots of this historical revolution, they’re able to distinguish various triggers that resulted in the war. For instance, the financial inequality between the social classes was growing more apparent in France. Although the country had been instrumental in the American Revolutionary War and the Seven Years’ War, it had suffered massive economic repercussions due to its involvement. The French Revolution lasted until 1799, resulting in the replacement of monarchy with democracy.
One of the most prominent anti-slavery revolts happened during the Haitian Revolution. Starting on August 21, 1791, the island nation of Haiti began its battle against enslavement. The riot lasted more than ten years and over tens of thousands of people died during the conflict. Eventually, the Haitian rebels were proclaimed victorious in their abolitionist struggle. Their success served to shift the world’s perspective on the institution of slavery. Subsequent slave revolts and civil rights protests that occurred in later years were heavily inspired by the Haitian Revolution.
Moreover, the Russian Revolution was also a significant rebellion. Occurring in 1917, the historical event was actually a combination of two different conflicts. In February 1917, the aptly-named February Revolution’s goal was to collapse the Russian capital of Petrograd. This upheaval led to the Russian Empire’s destruction, the resignation of Emperor Nicholas II, and the creation of a communist regime. In the fall of 1917, the October Revolution occurred, causing Moscow to become the capital of a communist country.
In modern history, the Cuban Revolution was the most spectacular rebellion that happened in recent times. Starting in the summer of 1953, the residents of Cuba launched a war against the totalitarian government led by Fulgencio Batista. For the next five years, the public waged a fight against the presiding politicians in response to unemployment, inflation, and inadequate water supplies. With Fidel Castro and Che Guevara as their leaders, the Cuban infidels began to attack their federal administration. By January 1, 1959, Cuban rebels were able to take control of the Cuban government. Under Castro’s communist rule, the nation of Cuba became a socialist country. Armed insurgencies have been around since the dawn of time, and continue to serve as a reminder of society’s need for radical change.